Dr Randall S Perry

Randall S Perry


Senior Research Investigator and

Chair of the Space Settlement Design Competition, Imperial College, London

Chair Space Science Engineering Foundation


Impacts and Astromaterials Research Centre

Earth Sciences and Engineering

Imperial College, University of London

South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ UK

+44 (0)2075 946 425

r.perry@imperial.ac.uk



GENERAL SCIENCE AREAS OF INTEREST: Astrobiology/Exobiology. Space and Engineering Science education. Ethics in science and medicine. Medical geology. Philosophy and psychology of language. Psychology of Science. Microbial and mineral interface.  Biomineralization, and dissolution and redepositon of minerals. Interactions of DNA, amino acids, and polysaccharides with minerals, particularly silica. Amino acids in meteorites. Preservation of microbes and “prebiotic chemicals” in minerals and their detection in ancient earth environments and hydrothermal deposits. Understanding the mechanisms of formation of rock coatings. Life in extreme environments. Prebiotic and biotic chemical evolution. Evolution and chemical composition of planets and planetary bodies. Biology and knowledge. Organic signatures of the Triassic-Jurassic mass extinction boundary. Definition of life. Tropical diseases and parasitology.



EDUCATION

2000-2004   Ph.D.  Earth and Space Sciences, University of Washington

                                    Co-Advisors:  Allan R. Gillespie Earth and Space Sciences and

                                    James T. Staley UW Medical School


1977-1980    M.S. Geochemistry, University of Washington

                                     Co- Advisors: John Adams Earth Sciences and

                                     James T. Staley UW Medical School       


1974-1976    B.S. General Interdisciplinary Studies, major title “Exobiology”; minor,

                     Art, University of Washington   



PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE


2011-present  Chair Space Science and Engineering foundation


2009-present  Chair UK Space Settlement Design Competition


                2006-present  Senior Research Investigator Imperial College, London UK


2007-2010  Royal Society Fellow, Impacts and Astromaterials Research Centre,

South Kensington Campus, Imperial College, University of London


                2005-2006  Visiting Research Scientist, Imperial College, University of London, UK


2005-2006  National Science Foundation International Research Fellow, University, Oxford, UK


2004-2009  Visiting academic Oxford University


2004-2005  Visiting  Research Scientist University of Oxford, Oxford, UK


2003-present   Research Scientist Emeritus, Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, AZ              


                2000-2004  Research Assistant, Astrobiology, Earth and Space Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA


1982-2000  President,  EAMSA Corporation, Seattle WA


1980-1981  President, Seaframe Corporation, Seattle WA


1974-1980  Research Tech II/ Research Assistant, Department of Geology, Remote Sensing Lab, University of Washington, Seattle WA


CHAIR

2009-present  Chair  and Founder UK Space Settlement Design Competition   


CHARITY

2011-present  Founding Board Member and Trustee Space Science Engineering Foundation  (SSEF)   a United Kingdom Charity


SESSION CHAIR

- Member of the Program Committee for SPIE conference, San Diego,   2003,         

                   Astrobiology VII, Chair session 2 “Biomarkers and Biominerals in Earth Rocks”


PROGRAM COMMITTEE

- SPIE Astrobiology xI, San Diego 2007


INVITED SPEAKER  

- “Biological and organic constituents of desert varnish: review and new hypotheses”, Instruments, Methods, and Missions for Astrobiology for Astrobiology VII

- “Carbon isotopic gradients in the Martian crust: implications for past or present life on Mars” SPIE, Astrobiology X

- “Defining Life Definitively” Durham Institute for Advanced Studies, Durham University, UK


AWARDS

              - National Science Foundation International Fellowship, Oxford University

             - Royal Society International Fellowship, Imperial College, University of London

             -  National Science foundation Internship, Carl Von Ossietzky University of

                Oldenburg Germany, INSTITUT FÜR CHEMIE UND BIOLOGIE DES MEERES (ICBM)

                2003   

             -  President’s Advisory Committee for White Mountain Research Station, UCSD to

                Study “Biology of Desert Varnish ” 2001 - 2002

             -  Stipend NATO/NASA Advanced Studies Institute - Astrobiology  2001-2003

             -  Fellowship NSF IGERT for Early Evolution and Astrobiology, University of    

                Washington 2000 - 2003

             -  Research Assistantship, Geology Graduate Department, 1978-1979

             -  Scholarship, Interlochen International Music Camp, University of Michigan

                Summer 1962


OTHER TRAINING

             -  Pilot Certification with ratings in fixed wing, single and multiengine, helicopter,    

                instrument rated

             -  Scuba certified

             -  Sky Diving certified

             -  Lieutenant U.S. Army, Armor, South Vietnam, 1966 - 1969, honorable discharge


PROFESSIONAL PAST AND PRESENT SOCIETIES

             -  Fellow Royal Society of Medicine

             -  Astrobiology Society of Great Britain

             -  American Society of Microbiologists

             -  American Geophysical Union

             -  American Mineralogical Society

             -  Screen Writers Guild of America WGA


PUBLICATIONS

            - Randall S. Perry and Katrina H. Roele, “Siliceous deposits in extreme environments”, submitted to Quaternary Research Jr.

            - Perry, R.S., 2011, “Desert Varnish”, Encylopedia of Earth Science Series, Encyclopedia of Geobiology, Editors Reitner, J. and Thiel, V., Part 4, 322-325

            - Perry, R.S., Sephton, M.A., 2009. Reply to comments on defining biominerals and organominerals: Direct and indirect indicators of life [Perry et al., Sedimentary Geology, 201, 157-159]. Sedimentary Geology 213, 156.

         - Randall S. Perry and Mark A. Sephton, 2008, “Solving the Mystery of Desert Varnish with Microscopy”, In Focus, 11, 63-76

         - Randall S. Perry, Nicola McLoughlin, Bridget Y. Lynne, Mark Sephton, Joan Oliver, Carole C. Perry, Kathleen Campbell, Michael H. Engel, Jack D. Farmer, Martin D. Brasier, James T. Staley, 2007, “Defining biominerals and                       organominerals: direct and indirect indicators of life?”, Sedimentary Geology 201, 157-179

            - Randall S. Perry, Mark Sephton, 2007, “Baking Black Opal in the Desert Sun”, Geology, Forum, 103, p. 106–113.

            - Randall S. Perry, Bridget Lynne, Carole C. Perry, Mark Sephton, Vera M. Kolb, James T. Staley, 2006, “Baking Black Opal in the Desert Sun”, Geology, 34, 537-540

         - Randall S. Perry and Mark A. Sephton, 2006, “Desert varnish – an environmental recorder on Earth and a target material for Mars Sample Return”, Astronomy and Geophysics 47, 4, 34-35

            -  Bridget Y. Lynne, Kathleen A. Campbell, Randall S. Perry, P.R.L. Browne, J. N. Moore, 2005, “Acceleration of sinter diagenesis in an active fumarole, Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand”, Geology vol. 34, 9, 749–752

         -  Randall S. Perry and William K. Hartmann, “Mars primordial crust: Unique sites for investigating proto-biologic properties”, 2006, Origin of Life and Evolution of Biospheres vol. 36, 5-6, 533-540  

            -  Joan Oliver and Randall S. Perry, “Definitely life but not definitively”, 2006,  Origin of Life and Evolution of Biospheres vol. 36, 5-6, 515-521

            - Randall S. Perry and Mark A. Sephton, 2006, “Varnished with a trace- a ‘Meteorwrong’ that could be right for a Mars sample return mission”, Meteorite, Vol. 12, No. 4, 30-31  

           - Nicola McLoughlin, Martin Brasier, David Wacey, Owen R. Green, Randall S. Perry, “Establishing Biogenicity Criteria for Endolithic Microborings on Early Earth and Beyond” , Astrobiology, Vol. 7, No. 1, 110-126

        -  Randall S. Perry, Jeremy Dodsworth, Lorraine Olendzenski, James Staley, “ Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic DNA preserved in siliceous mineral deposits”, in preparation Environmental Microbiology

        -  Mark A. Sephton, Randall S. Perry, Richard B. Hoover, “Thiophenes as indicators of aqueous alteration in carbonaceous meteorites” Sep 2006, SPIE 6309, Mission for Astrobiology IX

        -  Randall S. Perry, Bridget Y. Lynne and Mark A. Sephton, “Life’s signals preserved in siliceous rock deposits from extreme Earth (Mars?)  environments” , in press, International Astrobiology Journal

        -   Mark A. Sephton, Stephen Self, Alexander B. Verchovsky, Monica M. Grady, Randall S. Perry, Michael H. Engel and Ian Wright, “Carbon isotopic gradients in the Martian crust: implications for past or present life on Mars”, Sep             2006, SPIE 6309, Mission for Astrobiology IX

           -  Mike H. Engel and Randall S. Perry, “Amino acids as probes for ancient life in the solar system”, Sep 2006,  SPIE 6309, Mission for Astrobiology IX

        -  Mark A. Sephton, Ann L. Butterworth, Randall S. Perry, “Provenance of volatile carbon-bearing gases in carbonaceous chondrites”, 2005, in preparation

           - Randall S. Perry, Vera M. Kolb, Ajish I. Philip, Bridget Y. Lynne, Nicola Mcloughlin, Mark Sephton, Michael H. Engel, Martin Brasier, 2005, “Making silica rock coatings in the lab: synthetic desert varnish”, Publication:  Proc. SPIE Vol.              5906, Astrobiology and Planetary Missions; Richard B. Hoover, Gilbert V. Levin, Alexei Y. Rozanov, G. Randall Gladstone; Eds. 265-275.

           - Randall S. Perry, Bridget Y. Lynne, Nicola Mcloughlin, Vera M. Kolb, Mark Sephton, Lorraine Olendzenski,  Michael H. Engel, Martin Brasier, James T. Staley, 2005, “How desert varnish forms?”, Proc. SPIE Vol. 5906, Astrobiology and             Planetary Missions; Richard B. Hoover, Gilbert V. Levin, Alexei Y. Rozanov, G. Randall Gladstone; Eds, 276-287.

           - Kolb, V. M., Philip, Ajish, I., Perry, R. S., 2004, “Testing the role of silicic acid and bioorganic materials in the formation of rock coatings”, in Instruments, Methods, and Missions to Astrobiology VIII, Hoover, R. B., Levin, G. V., Rozanov,            A. Y. Eds., SPIE, V. 5555, 116-125

           - Perry, Randall S., 2004, “Biological Chemicals in Rock Coatings”, Ph.D. Thesis University of Washington, p.p.196

           - Perry, R. S. and Kolb, V. M., 2004, “On the Applicability of Darwinian Principles to Chemical Evolution that Led to Life”, International Journal of Astrobiology Jr., 3, 1 45-53

           - Perry, R. S., Gorbushina, A, A, Engel, M. H., Kolb, V. M., Krumbein, W. E., Staley, J.T., 2004, “Accumulation and deposition of inorganic and organic compounds by microcolonial fungi”, Third European Workshop on                Exo/Astrobiology, Mars: the Search for life, ESA Publications SP-545, Netherlands, 55-58

           - Perry, R. S., Dodsworth, Jeremy, Staley, James T., and Engel, Michael H.  2004,“Bacterial diversity of desert varnish”, Third European Workshop on Exo/Astrobiology, Mars: the Search for life ESA Publications SP-545, Netherlands,            259-260

           - Perry, R. S. and Kolb, V. M., 2004 “The importance of chemicals from the transition zone to chemical evolution”, Third European Workshop on Exo/Astrobiology, Mars: the Search for life ESA Publications SP-545, Netherlands, 257-            258

           - Fosnot, Catherine Twomey, Perry, Randall Stewart, 2005 “Constructivism:  A Psychological Theory of Learning”, in Constructivism: Theory, Perspectives and Practice, Ed. Catherine Twomey Fosnot, Teachers college press,            Columbia University, New York

           - Perry, R. S., Kolb, V. M., Engel, M.H., Staley, J. T., 2004, “The Importance of Silica in the Preservation of Labile Amino Acids in Rock Coatings”, International Astrobiology Jr., Supplement 1, 95.

           - Perry, R. S., Engel, Mike, Botta, Oliver, Staley, James, T., 2003, “Amino acid analyses of Desert Varnish from the Sonoran and Mojave deserts“, Geomicrobiology Jr., 20,5, 1-12.

           - Perry, R. S., Haggart, J. W., Ward, P. D., 2003, “Preliminary identification of fullerenes in lowermost Jurassic strata, Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia”, Eds. Hoover, R. and Rozanov, A., in Instruments, Methods, and Missions            for Astrobiology for Astrobiology VII, v. 5163, 62-71

           - Perry, R. S., Kolb, V.M., 2003, “From Darwin to Mars: desert varnish as a model for preservation of complex biochemical systems”, Eds. Hoover, R. and Rozanov, A., in Instruments, Methods, and Missions for Astrobiology for            Astrobiology VII, v. 5163, 136-144            

           - Perry, R. S., Kolb, V.M., 2003, “Biological and organic constituents of desert varnish: review and new hypotheses”, Eds. Hoover, R. and Rozanov, A., in Instruments, Methods, and Missions for Astrobiology for Astrobiology VII, v.           5163, 202-217

           -  Perry, R.S. and Kolb, V. M., 2003, “Biological signatures in mineral coatings“, Perspectives in astrobiology, Editors, Hoover, R. , Paepe, R., in press

           -  Staley, J. T., Perry, R. S., 2002, “Bacterial amino acids identified from desert varnish”, AAAS Annual Meeting and Science Innovation Exposition, 168, A18,14-19.

           - Randall S. Perry, Jeremy Dodsworth, James T. Staley, Allan Gillespie, 2002, “Molecular Analyses of Microbial Communities in Rock Coatings and Soils from Death Valley, California”, Astrobiology, V2, 4, 539.

           -  Gregory, E., Staley, J. T., Perry, R. S., 1980, “Characterization, distribution and significance of Metallogenium in Lake Washington“, Microbial Ecology, 6, 125-140.

           -  Perry, Randall S., 1979, “Chemistry and structure of desert varnish“, University of Washington Masters Thesis, geology 62.

           -  Perry, R.S. and Adams, J. B., 1978, “Desert Varnish: Evidence for cyclic deposition of manganese“, Nature 276, 489-491.

           -  Perry, Randall S., 1978, “Desert soils: Composition and surface properties“. Lunar and Planetary Institute Contribution No. 314, 91-95.


Interviews and Podcasts

- Inteview  BBC’s Digital Planet,  Imperial College Magazine Podcasts, March

2007, “Rocks on mars and what they could tell us about life on Earth”, available as PDF http://www3.imperial.ac.uk/portal/pls/portallive/docs/1/18757697.PDF, or as an interview

http://www.imperial.ac.uk/podcasts/ImpSciMagApril.mp3



ABSTRACTS, PRESENTATIONS, POSTERS


                - Randall S. Perry, Invited Speaker, Public evening lecture “Defining Life Definitively?” Durham Institute for Advanced Studies, March 29-30, 2010

                - Perry, Randall S., Guest Speaker, Art and Science, Chelsea Art Club, December, 2009

            -  Olendzenski, L., Gotta, E., Sardella, A., O’Connell, E., Dodsworth, J., Sogin, M., Staley, J., and Perry, R.,tRFLP and RNA sequence analysis of desert varnish organisms from Mojave Desert, CA”, ASM, Toronto, 2007

                -  Randall S. Perry, Bridget Y. Lynne and Mark A. Sephton, “Life’s signals preserved in siliceous rock deposits from extreme Earth (Mars?)  environments” , 6th European Workshop on Astrobiology, Lyon, 2006

            - Mark A. Sephton, Randall S. Perry, Richard B. Hoover, “Thiophenes as indicators of aqueous alteration in carbonaceous meteorites” in press, SPIE 6309, Mission for Astrobiology IX

            - Mark A. Sephton, Stephen Self, Alexander B. Verchovsky, Monica M. Grady, Randall S. Perry, Michael H. Engel and Ian Wright, “Carbon isotopic gradients in the Martian crust: implications for past or present life on Mars”,                 SPIE 6309, Mission for Astrobiology IX          

              -  Mike H. Engel and Randall S. Perry, “Amino acids as probes for ancient life in the solar system”, SPIE, Mission for Astrobiology X, 2006

              -  R. S. Perry and B. Y. Lynne, “New insights into natural recorders of planetary surface environments: The role of silica in the formation and diagenesis of desert varnish and siliceous sinter” ,1272, LPSC 2006

              -  Randall S. Perry, “Understanding the Graphology of Life’s Earliest Signatures”, Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, AZ, 2005

              -  Randall S. Perry, William K. Hartman, “Mars primordial crust: Unique sites for investigating proto-biologic properties”, National workshop on astrobiology, search for life in the solar system, Capri, Italy, 2005

              -  Michael H. Engel, Randall S. Perry, “Detection of Past Life Elsewhere in the Solar System”, National workshop on astrobiology, search for life in the solar system, Capri, Italy, 2005

              -  Joan Oliver and Randall S. Perry, Definitely Life but not Difinitively”, National workshop on astrobiology, search for life in the solar system, Capri, Italy, 2005

              - Perry, Randall S., Brasier, Martin D., Engel, Michael H., Campbell, Kathleen, Green, Owen R., Gorbushina, Anna A., Kolb, Vera M., Krumbein, Wolfgang E., Perry, Carole C., and Staley, James T., 2004, “Should organic                       compounds found in association with minerals be called biominerals”, GSA annual meeting, in press

              - Prof Martin D. Brasier, Prof Stephen Moorbath, Dr Randall Perry, Owen Green, Nicola McLoughlin, Jon Antcliffe, Maia Schweizer and Maya Bhatia, 2004, Geomicrobiology Earth Sciences Oxford, Poster NERC Comparative               Planetology Meeting Burlington House London

              - Gotta, Emily, Perry, Randall S. , Olendzenski, Lorraine, 2004, “Microbial Communities Associated With Rock Varnish: Sequence Analysis of Eukaryotic 18SrRNA Genes Amplified From Rock Varnish from Baker, CA”, St. Lawrence               University Festival of Science

              - Brasier, Martin D., Mcloughlin, Nicola1, Green, Owen R.1., Madeleine, Perry, Randall S., and Lindsay, John F, 2004, “Testing the biogenicity of endolithic microborings on early earth and mars: new data from western Australia”,               GSA annual meeting, in press

             - Volkmann, Marc, Gorbushina, Anna, A., Palinska, Katarzyna A., Krumbein,

             Wolfgang, E., Perry, Randall S., 2004, “Measuring the diversity of mycosporines and mycosporine like amino acids (MAA) of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms from rock communities by an new universal extraction              method”, 2004, GSA annual meeting

            - Perry, Randall S., 2004, “Neomineralization by subaerial biofilms” Biosastronomy, Iceland

            - Philip, Ajish I., Kolb, Vera M. Zhu, William, and Perry, Randall S., 2004, “The role

             of sugars, amino acids, and silicic acid in the formation of rock coatings”, Annual University of Wisconsin System Symposium for undergraduate Research and Creative Activity, April 28, Oskosh, WI, Abstract #PH 12

           - V. M. A. I. Philip, W. Zhu and R. S. Perry, 2004, “The role of sugars, amino acids,

           and silicic acid in the formation of rock coatings”, Gordon Research Conference on Biomineralization, August 8-13, Colby-Sawyer College, New London, NH

           -  A. Philip, V. Kolb, R. Perry, W. Zhu, 2004, “The role of sugars, amino acids, and silicic acid in the formation of rock coatings”, Posters in the Rotunda, A celebration of Undergraduate Student Research, April 17, State Capitol           Rotunda, Madison, WI Abstract 60, p.18

           - Perry, R.S., Kolb, V. M., Engel, M. H., Staley, J.T., 2004, “The importance of silica in the preservation of labile amino acids in rock coatings” Astrobiology Science Conference, NASA Ames, NASA Astrobiology Institute,         Prebiotic Chemistry and Origin of Life, San Jose, California

           - Perry, R. S. and Kolb, V. M., 2003,“Preservation of bioorganic molecules in amorphous silica in nature”, GSA annual conference, Seattle

           - Perry, R. S., Gorbushina, A, A, Engel, M. H., Kolb, V. M., Krumbein, W. E., Staley, J.T., 2003, “Accumulation and deposition of inorganic and organic compounds by microcolonial fungi”, Third European Workshop on            Exo/Astrobiology, Mars: the Search for life, speaker.

           - Engel, M. H. and Perry, R. S., 2003,“Analogues for the early synthesis of organic matter on Mars”, Third European Workshop on Exo/Astrobiology, Mars: the Search for life

           - Perry, R. S. and Kolb, V. M., 2003, “The importance of chemicals from the transition zone to chemical evolution”, Third European Workshop on Exo/Astrobiology, Mars: the Search for life.

           - Perry, R. S., Haggart, J. W., Ward, P. D., 2003, “Preliminary identification of fullerenes in lowermost Jurassic strata, Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia”, Instruments, Methods, and Missions for Astrobiology VII.

           - Perry, R. S., Kolb, V.M., 2003, “From Darwin to Mars: desert varnish as a model for preservation of complex (bio)chemical systems”, Instruments, Methods, and Missions for Astrobiology for Astrobiology VII.             

           - Perry, R. S., Kolb, V.M., 2003, “Biological and organic constituents of desert varnish: review and new hypotheses”, Instruments, Methods, and Missions for Astrobiology VII, invited speaker         

           - Perry, Randall S., Becker, Luann, Poreda, Robert, Haggart, Jim, 2003 “Triassic-Jurassic Mass Extinction: Evidence for Bolide Impact?“ International AGU,EGS, Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol 5, 07162

            - Perry, Randall S., Kolb, Vera M., 2003 “Darwin to Mars” International AGU,EGS abstract, Nice France

            - Perry, Randall S., Dodsworth, Jeremy, Staley, James T., Gillespie, Alan, 2003, “Microbial ecology of rock coatings from the desert southwest” NASA Astrobiology Institute annual meeting Arizona State.

           - Perry, R.S., 2002, Mass Extinctions in the Triassic/Jurassic boundary section of the Queen Charlotte Islands, B.C. presentation to NATO/ASI. speaker

            - Perry, Randall S., Engel, Mike, Botta, Oliver, Staley, James T. 2002, “Organic Components of Rock Coatings”, NATO-ASI, Crete.

           -  Staley, James T. and Perry, Randall S., 2002, “Bacterial amino acids from desert varnish”,  AAAS Anual meeting and science inovation exposition 168 A18 14-19.

           -  Farmer, M.,  Stone, John O., Perry, Randall S., 2001 Fall AGU, “Biological Origin of Micro-laminated Calcium Carbonate Deposits on Antarctic Rock Surfaces“. F201.

           -  Haggart, J.W., Cater,E.S., Beattie, M.J., Brown, P.S., Enkin, R.J., Kring, D. A., Johns, M.J., McNicoll, V.J., Orchard, M.J., Perry, R.S., Schroder-Adams, C.S., Smith, P.L., Suneby, L.B., Tipper, H.W., Ward, P. D., 2001, “Stratigraphy of           Triassic/Jurassic Boundary Strata, Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia: Potential Global System Stratotype Boundary“, IGCP #458 (Triassic-Jurassic Events), Southwest England Field Workshop, Somerset,10-13.

           -Perry, Randall S., Staley, James, T.,2001, “Biology and Chemistry of Rock Surfaces“, presentation to NW Chemical Society of America

           -   Perry, Randall S., Staley, James T., 2001, “Amino acid analyses of acid hydrolysates in desert varnish“, General Meeting of the NASA Astrobiology

          Institute Washington D.C.            

          -  Perry, Randall S. and Adams, John B.,  “Growth Zones in Desert Varnish,” Cordilleran Section of The Geological Society of America, 1978, March, 141-142.


Novels


         - Perry, RS, 2012, Off The Edge, Penelope Ltd

         - Perry, RS, 2013, Over The Line, Penelope Ltd



Grants


- Perry, R. S., 2013, Royal Academy of Engineering, Ingenious Award, UK space Settlement Desgin Competition.”

                - Perry, R. S., 2006, Royal Society Fellowship to Imperial College, “Sequestration of organic compounds in an amorphous matrix.”

                - Perry, R. S., 2005, National Science foundation Overseas Fellowship to Oxford University, “Oldest Evidence for Life3 on Earth.”

                - Perry, R. S.  2003, “Polysaccharides and metal complexes”, Grant from Washington Space Grant Consortium

                - Perry, R. S. 2003, “Organic compounds in rock coatings”, User grant from Department of Energy (DOE) for Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratories, Pacific Northwest National Laboratories,                       Richland, renewed 2004.

                - Perry, R. S. 2001, “Biology of Rock Surfaces in Arid Regions” White Mountain Research, UCSD received 2001 and renewed 2002.